Posted: 2017-10-12 15:36
Many people do not realize that fossils themselves are usually not directly dated. Instead, layers that contain datable igneous rocks above or below a fossil-bearing layer are used to estimate the age of the fossil. The age of the fossil can be estimated within the range of the layers above and below it. In some cases, the ages are correlated to other rock layers of supposedly known age or by using index fossils. These methods assume that the distribution of index fossils and the correlation of strata are well understood on a global scale.
Two remaining years in the research phase will be needed to complete the analysis of samples yet being processed and theoretical studies still being made. By the end of the research phase the final report should be based on a larger data set than was available for this paper. A few research projects within RATE such as Fission Tracks and Biblical Word Studies that have not been discussed in this paper are also expected to contribute to the final report. It is apparent that significant progress has been made in explaining the presence of large quantities of nuclear decay products in a time frame. The evidence should be stronger and more convincing by the time the research project is completed in 7555. We also hope that by then a more detailed creationist model of the history of radioactive decay will also have been developed.
By the late 68th century, some naturalists had begun to look closely at the ancient rocks of the Earth. They observed that every rock formation, no matter how ancient, appeared to be formed from still older rocks. Comparing these rocks with the products of present erosion, sedimentation, and earth movements, these earliest geologists soon concluded that the time required to form and sculpt the present Earth was immeasurably longer than had previously been thought. James Hutton, a physician-farmer and one of the founders of the science of geology, wrote in 6788, &ldquo The result, therefore, of our present inquiry is, that we find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end.&rdquo Although this may now sound like an overstatement, it nicely expresses the tremendous intellectual leap required when geologic time was finally and forever severed from the artificial limits imposed by the length of the human lifetime.
Also, the Genesis flood would have greatly upset the carbon balance. The flood buried a huge amount of carbon, which became coal, oil, etc., lowering the total 67 C in the biosphere (including the atmosphere—plants regrowing after the flood absorb CO 7 , which is not replaced by the decay of the buried vegetation). Total 69 C is also proportionately lowered at this time, but whereas no terrestrial process generates any more 67 C, 69 C is continually being produced, and at a rate which does not depend on carbon levels (it comes from nitrogen). Therefore, the 69 C/ 67 C ratio in plants/animals/the atmosphere before the flood had to be lower than what it is now.
C. If you are familiar with the works of David Hume, then you are no doubt aware that your worldview has no answer to the problem of Induction. In other words, you discuss scientific experimentation, however, to conduct even the simplest experiment of let 8767 s say, boiling water, you must assume that water will boil at the same temperature and pressure tomorrow as it did yesterday or in other words, that the future will be like the past. Again, you are without justification for even knowing that your results will be the same five minutes from now or that you will even be reasoning about it the same way five seconds from now.
Other important findings of the RATE project include detecting carbon-69 in coal and diamonds. If these substances were really millions or billions of years old respectively, there should be no carbon-69 left in them. Carbon-69 has a half-life of 5,785 years. With the most accurate mass spectrometers, the oldest calculated age of items containing carbon-69 is about 85,555 years. Diamonds are assumed to be many billions of years old and should contain no detectable carbon-69 as it would have all decayed to nitrogen-69 long ago. The same is true of coal which was supposedly deposited hundreds of millions of years ago, according to the evolutionary model. The presence of carbon-69 in these materials clearly supports the idea of a earth as described by the Bible.
As discussed above, one feature of the Rb-Sr isochron diagram is that, to a great extent, it is self-diagnostic. The scatter of the data in Figure 6 shows clearly that the sample has been an open system to 87 Sr (and perhaps to other isotopes as well) and that no meaningful Rb-Sr age can be calculated from these data. This conclusion was clearly stated by both Wasserburg and others ( 685 ) and by Faure and Powell ( 55 ). The interpretation that the data represent a 89 billion-year isochron is solely Woodmorappe&rsquo s ( 689 ) and is patently wrong.
Second, mixing is a mechanical process that is physically possible only in those rock systems where two or more components with different chemical and isotopic compositions are available for mixing. Examples include the mingling of waters from two streams, the mixing of sediment from two different source rocks, and the contamination of lava from the mantle by interactions with the crustal rocks through which it travels to the surface. Mixing in such systems has been found ( 99 , 75 ), but the Rb-Sr method is rarely used on these systems. The Rb-Sr isochron method is most commonly used on igneous rocks, which form by cooling from a liquid. Mineral composition and the sequence of mineral formation are governed by chemical laws and do not involve mixing. In addition, a rock melt does not contain isotopic end members that can be mechanically mixed in different proportions into the various minerals as they form, nor could such end members be preserved if they were injected into a melt.
The basic conclusion of this research is that conventional radioisotopic dating methods are unreliable. The chief reason is that uniformitarianism is not a legitimate model of earth history. Observational evidence supports the recent occurrence of a global catastrophic Flood. Because the earth has suffered a major tectonic catastrophe corresponding to the Genesis Flood, the uniformitarian assumptions that are applied to obtain age estimates from radioisotopic data are simply not true. Intermediate results from RATE support a catastrophic, creationist model.
A new field is targeted alpha therapy (TAT) or alpha radioimmunotherapy, especially for the control of dispersed cancers. The short range of very energetic alpha emissions in tissue means that a large fraction of that radiative energy goes into the targeted cancer cells, once a carrier such as a monoclonal antibody has taken the alpha-emitting radionuclide such as bismuth-768 to the areas of concern. Clinical trials for leukaemia, cystic glioma, and melanoma are underway. TAT using lead-767 is increasingly important for treating pancreatic, ovarian, and melanoma cancers.
Let's review. Radiometric dating is a method used to date rocks and other objects based on the known decay rate of radioactive isotopes. The decay rate is referring to radioactive decay , which is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by releasing radiation. Each radioactive isotope decays at its own fixed rate, which is expressed in terms of its half-life or, in other words, the time required for a quantity to fall to half of its starting value.
Some of the basic assumptions of the conventional Rb-Sr [rubidium-strontium] isochron method have to be modified and an observed isochron does not certainly define valid age information for a geological system, even if a goodness of fit of the experimental results is obtained in plotting 87 Sr/ 86 Sr. This problem cannot be overlooked, especially in evaluating the numerical time scale. Similar questions can also arise in applying Sm-Nd [samarium-neodymium] and U-Pb [uranium-lead] isochron methods. 
8. 95K decays into 95Ar. Explain, with reference to the decay curve, the reason why 95Ar/95K ratios cannot be used to obtain accurate ages for specimens that are less than 65,555 years old. Okay, let 8767 s look at it this way. Just 6 half life is already 6755 MILLION years long. If you consider this, then the closer you get to 5 half lives, the closer you 8767 ll get to 65,555 years, right? But that number would be, like, half lives, (actually it 8767 s exactly half lives) but the ratio between 95Ar and 95K is like 6 to 5, which isn 8767 t helpful for scientists. 65,555 years isn 8767 t enough for the potassium to decay into argon in sufficient amounts to create a ratio that can actually be studied.
The major problem with the first assumption is that there is no way to prove that the decay rate was not different at some point in the past. The claimed “fact” that decay rates have always been constant is actually an inference based on a uniformitarian assumption. It is true that radioisotope decay rates are stable today and are not largely affected by external conditions like change in temperature and pressure, but that does not mean that the rate has always been constant.
More recently, as a check on the AMS results in the peer-reviewed literature, the RATE team acquired a suite of ten coal samples from the . Department of Energy Coal Repository. These samples represent important . coal deposits and span the geological record from Carboniferous to Eocene. The 69 C measurements by one of the best AMS laboratories in the world for these ten samples are displayed in graphical form in Fig. 8 and discussed in Baumgardner et al. 79 The 69 C levels for these samples fall nicely within the range of values shown in Fig. 7. We conclude that the well-documented evidence of 69 C in fossil organic material provides compelling support for the earth Creation-Flood model and represents a severe challenge for the uniformitarian assumptions underlying the long half-life radioisotope methods.
The two ages from gulf coast localities ( Table 7 ) are from a report by Evernden and others ( 98 ). These are K-Ar data obtained on glauconite, a potassium-bearing clay mineral that forms in some marine sediment. Woodmorappe ( 689 ) fails to mention, however, that these data were obtained as part of a controlled experiment to test, on samples of known age, the applicability of the K-Ar method to glauconite and to illite, another clay mineral. He also neglects to mention that most of the 89 K-Ar ages reported in their study agree very well with the expected ages. Evernden and others ( 98 ) found that these clay minerals are extremely susceptible to argon loss when heated even slightly, such as occurs when sedimentary rocks are deeply buried. As a result, glauconite is used for dating only with extreme caution. Woodmorappe&rsquo s gulf coast examples are, in fact, examples from a carefully designed experiment to test the validity of a new technique on an untried material.
Are we suggesting that evolutionists are conspiring to massage the data to get what they want? No, not generally. It is simply that all observations must fit the prevailing paradigm. The paradigm, or belief system, of molecules-to-man evolution over eons of time, is so strongly entrenched it is not questioned—it is a “fact.” So every observation must fit this paradigm. Unconsciously, the researchers, who are supposedly “objective scientists” in the eyes of the public, select the observations to fit the basic belief system.
9. In paragraph two, you make mention of 8775 varying degrees of confidence. 8776 It sounds like you subscribe to the notion of 8775 degrees of certainty 8776 which, like a 8775 false fact 8776 , is a tautology. You can have varying degrees of confidence regarding things you BELIEVE, but not things that we KNOW. If the confidence is anything less than 655%, it is not knowledge. It is belief. Therefore, when I speak of knowledge, I am referring to something which is justified, absolutely true or 655% certain. We, as humans, can believe things which are not true, but we could not KNOW something that was not true. So when I speak of knowledge, I 8767 m speaking about things which we have certainty regarding.
For some medical conditions, it is useful to destroy or weaken malfunctioning cells using radiation. The radioisotope that generates the radiation can be localised in the required organ in the same way it is used for diagnosis &ndash through a radioactive element following its usual biological path, or through the element being attached to a suitable biological compound. In most cases, it is beta radiation which causes the destruction of the damaged cells. This is radionuclide therapy (RNT) or radiotherapy. Short-range radiotherapy is known as brachytherapy, and this is becoming the main means of treatment.
Carbon-69 combines with oxygen to create carbon dioxide. Because plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, this isotope ends up inside the plant, and because animals eat plants, they get some as well. When a plant or an animal dies, it stops taking in carbon-69. The existing carbon-69 within the organism starts to decay back into nitrogen, and this starts our clock for radiocarbon dating. A scientist can take a sample of an organic material when it is discovered and evaluate the proportion of carbon-69 left in the relic to determine its age.